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What are the risk Amphetamine?

What are the risk Amphetamine?

Amphetamine can produce many side effects, ranging from mild to severe.

Physical side effects include:

  • low or high blood pressure
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon, where there is reduced blood flow to the extremities
  • erectile dysfunction, and especially frequent or persistent erections
  • rapid heart rate
  • abdominal pain
  • loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss
  • acne, rash, hives
  • blurred vision
  • dry mouth
  • teeth grinding
  • nosebleed
  • profuse sweating
  • nasal congestion
  • increased likelihood of seizures for susceptible individuals
  • tics
  • faster, deeper breaths, especially in those with other lung conditions
  • difficulty urinating

There may also be psychological effects.

These include:

  • increased alertness and focus
  • apprehension, anxiety, irritability, and restlessness
  • mood swings
  • insomnia
  • changes in libido
  • grandiosity, or an exaggerated sense of one’s own importance
  • obsessive behaviors

In rare cases, psychosis may occur

People who follow the prescribed, therapeutic dose are unlikely to experience severe adverse effects.

There have been fears that long-term use of amphetamines for ADHD could affect brain development, prevent physical growth, and increase the risk of drug abuse later in life. However, animal studies have suggested that this is unlikely.

Effects on child growth

There is evidence that amphetamine use to treat ADHD could slow growth in children. Minor effects on the cardiovascular system, including a rise in heart rate and blood pressure, may have long-term effects.

However, some studies show that any reduction in growth speed may be caught up by a “growth rebound” once the drug has stopped being taken.

More studies are needed to confirm whether amphetamines affect growth.

As a narcotic

Amphetamine is used as a recreational drug. People take it to boost libido, increase wakefulness, improve cognitive control, enhance sociability, and induce euphoria.

It can also speed up reaction times, increase muscle strength, and reduce fatigue.

Unwanted effects of ‘speed’

When amphetamines are used at higher doses and through routes that are not prescribed by a doctor, they can have severe adverse effects. Dopamine levels in the brain can rise quickly, and to a great extent.

Overuse and repeated abuse can lead to:

  • psychosis and delusions
  • feelings of paranoia and hostility
  • cardiovascular problems, including stroke
  • reduction in cognitive ability
  • breakdown of muscle and malnutrition

Withdrawal symptoms include depression and sleep disturbances.

People who crush and inject a tablet may have blockages in their small blood vessels, as some of the components do not break down.

Amphetamine substitutes

Other street drugs that are based on the structure of amphetamine include methamphetamine, cathinone, ephedrine, MDMA (ecstasy), and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM).

These drugs can have a wide variety of overlapping effects that broadly fit into three categories:

  • psychoanaleptic, or having an arousing effect
  • hallucinogenic, causing visual, auditory, or other types of hallucination and perceptual anomalies
  • empathogen, increasing feelings of “oneness,” empathy, and emotional openness

These drugs are made illegally, and there is no control over their contents. For this reason, a person can easily consume something they do not expect to consume. This can be hazardous, and, in some cases, fatal.